Bu dersin içeriği:
İngilizce’de söz aktarımı / Reported Speech
Reported Speech / Cümle aktarımı
Birinin söylediği sözü bir başkasına aktarmaktır. Bunu yaparken dikkat edilmesi gereken birkaç basit kural vardır.
Direct Speech (Doğrudan aktarım)
Söylenen sözü tırnak içine (“”) alarak aynen söylendiği şekliyle aktarabiliriz.
Örnek: Ahmet diye birisi “ ” demiş olsun. Biz Ahmet’ I am very happy today in bu sözünü başkasına aktarırken, Ahmet deriz. Buna said, “ I am very happy today” denir. direct speech
Indirect Speech (Dolaylı aktarım)
Dolaylı aktarımda sözü kendimize ve söylediğimiz zamana uyarlarız. Gerekli zaman ve şahıs değişikliklerini yaparak aktarırız.
Örnek: Yukarıdaki sözü Ahmet’
in dün söylediğini varsayarak
Ahmet said he was very happy yesterday
deriz. Şimdi değişikliklere ve nedenlerine bakalım:
I ⇒ he
I” kelimesi yerine “ he” kullandık. Neden? Çünkü biz Ahmet’ ten bahsediyoruz ve Ahmet bize göre “ben” değil “o”dur. am ⇒ was
Neden? Çünkü Ahmet bu sözü dün söyledi. Bu sebeple fiili geçmişe uyarlamamız lazım. Söylenen cümle söylendiği zamanın bir gerisine kaydırılır.
today ⇒ yesterday
Neden? Çünkü Ahmet’
in “bugün” diye bahsettiği zaman artık “dün” oldu.
Daha fazla örnek
I don’t understand you” Kamil said ( that) he didn’t understand me.
I am listening to music” Osman said that he was listening to music.
I want to go to Kayseri” Ali said he wanted to go to Kayseri”
is a good car” Cemil said Mercedes was a good car.
I listened to Metallica.” Cemile said she had listened to Metallica. ( Past tense olan cümle past perfect tense’e kaydırıldı)
We will fly to Ankara” Süleyman said they would fly to Ankara. Her zaman “said” kullanmak zorunda mıyız?
her zaman “ said” fiilini kullanmak zorunda değiliz. Söz şu anda söyleniyorsa veya kişi bu sözü zaman zaman söylüyorsa “ says” diyerek de aktarma yapabiliriz. Bu durumda aktarılan sözde zaman değişikliği de yapılmaz. Yukarıdaki örneklerde “ said” kullanmamızın sebebi sözün geçmişte söylendiğini varsaymamızdır. Örnekler: Arif: “ I am watching TV” Arif says he is watching TV.
Zaman ve şahıs uyarlamaları burada da geçerli. Buna ilaveten aktarmada varsa soru kelimesini de içermek gerekiyor.
to Cemil: “ Where do you live?” Ahmet asked Cemil where he lived.
to Hüseyin: “ Why are you going to school?” Hasan asked Hüseyin why he was going to school.
to Celil: “ How often do you play tennis?” Enver asked Celil how often he played tennis
Soru kelimesi yoksa “ if” ya da “ whether” kullanılır.
Teacher to Aylin: “ Do you speak French?” The teacher asked Aylin if she spoke French.
to Tuğçe: “ Are you going today?” Songül asked Tuğçe if she was going that day.
asked Bertuğ: “ Is this your phone?” Burak asked Bertuğ whether that was his phone.
direct ve indirect olarak iki şekilde aktarabiliriz. Direct olan yukarıdakinin aynıdır yani söz tırnak içine alınıp aynen aktarılır. Indirect speech emir aktarımı ise şu örneklerdeki gibidir:
Örnek: Ayşe: “
Go home!” Ayşe told me to go home.
Father: “ Listen to me!” Father told me to listen to him.
to Mehmet: “ Give me some money please!” Mustafa asked Mehmet to give him some money.
Reported Speech Testleri
Okuma Parçası Goldilocks
Bilmediğiniz kelimelerin üstüne basarak anlamını görebilirsiniz.
Once upon a time, there was a little girl with golden hair. Her name was Goldilocks. She lived in a peaceful countryside. Everyday, when she went out to play, her mother said, “ Do not walk into the forest or you will get lost.”
Her cümlede özne+fiil+nesne yapısını görerek okuyun.
said, “ OK mum.”
She looked pretty and well- behaved. But sometimes Goldilocks was a naughty girl.
One day when her mother wasn’t looking, Goldilocks left home and she walked into the forest because she wanted to explore the forest. However, she got lost.
was lost in the forest. She was very frightened. Then she saw a little cottage.
She looked through the window but she couldn’t see anyone. She knocked the door. But no one answered. Then she pushed the door. And it opened and Goldilocks went inside. In the kitchen there was a lovely fire burning and there were 3 bowls of porridge on the table. The porridge had a delicious smell. Goldilocks wanted to taste it. She tried the biggest bowl first.
She said, “Yuk! This porridge is too salty.”
She didn’t like it. Then she tried the middle one.
She said, “Ugh! This porridge is too sweet.”
She didn’t like that, either. Then she tried the little bowl and she liked it. She ate it up.
Then she felt sleepy. And she sat in a big chair.
She said, “Oh No! This chair is too high.”
Then she tried the middle chair.
She said, “ No, no! This chair will not do, either. It is still much too high.”
Then she tried the little chair. But it was too small and it was broken into pieces when she sat on it. But she was still sleepy. Then she went upstairs to explore. She found three beds upstairs. She tried the biggest bed first.
She said, “Ouch! This Bed Is Too Hard.”
Then she tried the middle bed.
She said, “Oh, no! This bed is too soft!”
Then she tried the little bed. It was just right. She fell asleep. Then the door to the cottage opened. The cottage belonged to three bears. It was their cottage. And the three bears walked in.
Little Bear said, “ I am very hungry.”
When they went to the table, father Bear said, “ Someone ate my porridge.”
Mother Bear said, “ Someone ate my porridge too.”
Little Bear said, “ My bowl is EMPTY! Someone ate my porridge.”
Father Bear said, “ Someone sat on my chair.”
Mother Bear said, “ Someone sat on my chair too.”
Little Bear said, “ Someone sat on my chair, too. And it is broken!”
Then the bears went upstairs to look for the stranger.
Father Bear said, “ Someone slept in my bed!”
Mother Bear said, “ Someone slept in my bed too.”
Little Bear said, “ Someone is sleeping in my bed.”
When Goldilocks opened her eyes, she saw the three angry bears looking at her. They were very cross.
was very afraid. She jumped out of the bed. The bears chased her. She ran away.
She ran through the door.
She ran towards home.
She didn’t stop until she came home.
She never walked into the forest again.