Once upon a time, there was a rich man. He spent all his money carelessly and became a poor man. He had no money, no home, nothing. He only had his old clothes. One day in early spring he saw a Swallow. He thought that summer had come, and that he didn’t need his coat. So, he sold it. However, a change took place in the weather. There came a sharp frost. It killed the unfortunate Swallow. When the poor man saw the dead swallow he said, “Poor bird! You died of cold and I am going to die of cold myself because of you.”
One swallow does not make summer.
#1 How did the rich man become poor?
#2 Why did he think that summer had come?
#3 Why did he sell his coat?
#4 When did he know that he should not have sold his coat?
A Peacock laughed at a Crane. She said, “Your feathers are dull. Look at my brilliant feathers. They are finer (=more beautiful) than your poor feathers.” The Crane replied, “I agree that your feathers are much finer than mine; but when it comes to flying, I can soar into the clouds, whereas you always walk on earth like a hen.”
A fisherman cast his net into the sea. When he drew it, there was only a little fish in it. The little fish begged the man, “Please put me back into the water. I am only a little fish now but I will grow big one day. Then you can catch me again and you will have a big fish to eat.” But the fisherman replied, “Oh, no, I will keep you now because I have got you: if I put you back in the water, will I catch you again? No.” So he took the fish home, cooked it, and ate it.
#1 What else did the fisherman catch?
#2 Why did the little fish ask the fisherman to put it back into water?
#3 What happened to the fish in the end?
#4 Why didn’t the fisherman put the little fish back into the water?
A fox fell into a well and could not get out again. Soon a thirsty goat came, and he saw the fox in the well. He asked him, “Is the water good?” The Fox said, “Good? It’s the best water I ever tasted in all my life. Come down and try it yourself.” The goat only thought of drinking water because he was very thirsty. So, he jumped in at once. He drank water. When he finished drinking, he wanted to get out of the well but could not get out. Then, the fox said, “I have an idea. You stand on your hind legs; put your forelegs against the side of the well. Then, I will climb on to your back. Then I will step on your horns, and get out. When I am out, I will help you out, too.” The goat agreed with the fox. He did what the fox asked, and the fox climbed on to his back, stepped on his horns, and got out of the well. Then he walked away. The goat called after him and said, “You promised to help me!” The fox replied, “If you were clever enough, you wouldn’t have got into the well without making certain that you could get out again.” Look before you jump.
A shepherd was tending his flock near a village. He was bored and he wanted to have fun; he made a plan; he would play a trick on the villagers. How? He pretended that a wolf was attacking the sheep. So, he shouted out, “Wolf! Wolf! A wolf is attacking the sheep!” People in the village heard him. They came running, and the shepherd laughed at them. The villagers were very angry. Then, on another day, the shepherd was bored again. He decided to play the same trick. He began shouting, “Help! A wolf is attacking the sheep!” The villagers heard him. They hesitated for a moment for they thought it could be a trick again. But they could not risk the sheep. So, they came running again but there was no wolf. One day, a wolf really came and the shepherd cried, “Wolf! wolf!” But this time people didn’t believe him. They thought he was playing another joke. So they did not go to help him. And things were very easy for the wolf; he killed all the sheep one by one without a hurry. The villagers were very angry with the shepherd. They fired him (=he lost his job as a shepherd). You cannot believe a liar even when he tells the truth.
#1 What did the shepherd do to have fun?
#2 Why did the villagers run to the flock?
#3 Why were the villagers frustrated?
#4 Why did the villagers believe the shepherd again?
#5 Why didn’t the villagers go to the shepherd when the wolf came?
A poor man had a donkey. One day he went to the town and bought a lot of salt. He loaded the donkey with the salt. It was a heavy load. On the way home, the donkey stumbled while he was crossing a stream and fell into the water. The salt got wet and most of it melted. So, when the donkey stood up, his load was much lighter. However, the man took him back to the city. He bought more salt and loaded it up on the donkey again. When they reached the stream, the donkey lay down in it and then stood up, and his load was lighter again. But the man understood the trick. He turned back to the city again but this time he bought a lot of sponges, and put them on the donkey. When they came to the stream, the donkey lay down again, but now the sponges soaked a lot of water, and when the donkey got up, his burden was heavier than ever.
#1 Why did the man go to the town?
#2 What happened on the way back home?
#3 Why was the load much lighter when the donkey got out of the water?
#4 Why did the donkey go into the stream again?
#5 What did the man buy the last time they went into the city?
#6 Why was the donkey’s load much heavier after he went into the stream for the last time?
There was an oak tree on the bank of a river. One day a hard wind blew. It uprooted the tree and threw it to the other side of the river. The oak fell among some reeds by the water, and said to them, “You are very weak and thin but the storm did you no harm, whereas I am very strong but the storm uprooted me and threw me into the water. How can this be?” The reeds replied, “You were stubborn. You fought against the storm but it was stronger than you. But we bow and yield to winds. So, the storm did us no harm”
A slave ran away from his master who was a cruel man. He went to desert because he was afraid that they might catch him. While he was walking in search of food and shelter, he came to a cave. He entered the cave and found that it was empty. However, it was a lion’s cave. Soon the lion came to the cave too. The man was very afraid. He thought that this was the end of his life. But, the lion did not jump on him or eat him. Instead, he walked up to the man like a little cat. The man was surprised. The lion was crying and showing his paw. The man saw that the paw was swollen and red, and there was a big thorn in it. He removed the thorn and cleaned and covered the paw. In time, the paw healed completely. The lion’s gratitude was limitless. They became good friends and shared the cave. One day, however, the slave wanted to be among people, and he said goodbye to the lion and returned to the town. But they recognized him in town, chained him and took him to his master. The master wanted to show everyone that runaway slaves would have a terrible end. So, he would throw him to wild animals at the arena. On the fatal day, animals ran to the arena. Some of the animals were big lions. Then they threw the slave into the arena. A big lion walked toward the slave. Everybody thought that the lion would kill the slave. But the lion didn’t kill the slave because he was his old friend of the cave! The spectators were surprised and they shouted that the slave should be free. The Emperor agreed with them as he was also surprised at the lion’s gratitude and fidelity. He ordered that both the lion and the slave receive their freedom.
#1 Why did the slave run away from his master?
#2 What shelter did the slave find after running away from his master?
#3 What was the lion’s problem?
#4 Why was the lion grateful (=thankful) to the slave?
#5 Why did the slave leave the cave?
#6 What happened to the slave in the town?
#7 Why did the master throw him to the arena?
#8 Why didn’t the lion kill the slave in the arena?
Two men were travelling together. One of them never told the truth. The other never told a lie. On their way, they came to the land of apes. The King of the Apes heard of their arrival, and he ordered, “Bring the travelers before me!” He wanted to impress them with his magnificence. So, he received them sitting on his throne. When the travelers came in, he asked them a question, “What do you think of me as a king?” The lying traveler said, “Sire, you are a most noble and mighty king.” The king of apes was very happy with this answer and he gave a very nice present to the lying traveler. The other traveler thought that if the king rewarded his friend for his lies, he would give him a greater reward for telling the truth. So, when the king asked, “And what is your opinion?” He replied, “I think you are a very fine Ape.” However, the king got very angry with this answer and ordered the apes to kill him.
#1 What were the two men doing?
#2 What did the first traveller never tell?
#3 Where did they arrive on their way?
#4 Why did the king order the travellers before him?
#5 What question did the ape king ask the travellers?
#6 Why did the king give the first traveller a nice present?
#7 What did the second traveller expect the king to do in return for his answer?
Napoleon’s economic blockade against Great Britain wasn’t working. Spain was trading with Great Britain. So, Napoleon decided to invade Spain. In 1808, Napoleon sent 118,000 soldiers into Spain. He thought Spanish people would welcome them. He thought that there would be no resistance to his army. On 2 May 1808, people of Madrid rose up against the French army. They killed 150 French soldiers. The French retaliated. They killed thousands of Spanish people. A savage war began. Thousands of people died. However, Napoleon wouldn’t give up. He didn’t listen to his advisors. He kept the army in Spain for five years. There was no victory.
Napoleon’s wife Josephine was 46 years old. She could not give birth. However, Napoleon wanted an heir to his throne. He divorced Josephine in 1809. She fainted upon hearing this. Napoleon said, “It is for France. The whole of France wants the divorce.” He gave her a big house and 3 million francs a year. Then he married Marie Louise, the daughter of the Austrian Emperor Francis. She was 19 years old. She didn’t want to marry Napoleon. (www.bebekce.gen.tr) But her father said, “Marriage with Napoleon will bring peace and alliance with the most powerful country in Europe.” Finally she agreed with her father and married Napoleon on 2 April 1810. Next year she gave birth to a son. Napoleon was very happy because now he had an heir to his throne. He called his son the King of Rome. He was 42 years old. He said, “Late hours, hardship, and war are not for me at my age. I love my bed more than anything but I must finish my work.”
What was his work?
-The war in Spain continued.
-Britain was still a stubborn enemy.
– A new war with Russia was coming.
INVASION OF RUSSIA
Russia was also trading with Britain. Alexander said “I will no longer be a part of the blockade against Britain” because the blockade was ruining the Russian economy. Napoleon thought of invading Russia. His advisers told him that he should not attack Russia. But he ignored their advice (he didn’t listen to them) and decided to invade Russia. He had become too proud and arrogant. He assembled the largest army ever, 600,000 soldiers. Napoleon was confident. He said, “The war will be over in 20 days.” He imagined that he would easily destroy the Russian Army. He moved into Russia with his army in the spring of 1812. However, the Russians would not give battle. In other words, they kept retreating and retreating. They didn’t fight Napoleon. It was summer. It was hot. Napoleon‘s soldiers were very tired. They had been marching thousands of kilometers. Some soldiers died of heat and fatigue. Many deserted. Everyday Napoleon lost more and more soldiers without a fight. In two months, he lost 150,000 soldiers. (www.bebekce.gen.tr) At last, at the Battle of Borodino, the two armies fought. It was the deadliest battle of the Napoleonic wars. In total, 70,000 soldiers were killed or wounded. There was no decisive victory. Next day the Russian army retreated. Napoleon said, “We are victorious.” Next week Napoleon entered Moscow. The city was deserted. The Russian people had left the city before the French came. That night, Moscow began to burn. Napoleon could not stay in Moscow anymore. But he didn’t want to leave it either. He said, “Winter is coming, but I don’t want to abandon my conquest.” So, he wrote to the Czar, “Let’s make peace.” He waited for an answer to his letter. But the answer didn’t come. The Czar was silent. Then, on 19 October 1812, Napoleon ordered his army to leave Moscow and return to France. Soon it began to snow. The Russian winter had arrived early. It was 22 degrees below zero (-22°C). One French soldier wrote, “Our lips stuck together, our nostrils froze, we seem to be marching in a world of ice.” Their food supplies had finished. Thousands of horses died. The French soldiers ate these horses because they didn’t have better food. Another serious problem was the Cossacks. They conducted surprise attacks against the French army. Fearing capture, Napoleon carried a small bag of poison around his neck. Hunger, cold, disease, and the Cossacks destroyed the French army. Out of 600,000 French soldiers, 93,000 came back to France. This was the beginning of the end for Napoleon.
BEGINNING OF THE END
Now Russia, Prussia, Britain, and Sweden united against Napoleon. Napoleon hoped that one decisive victory in central Europe could turn his luck. However, he didn’t have enough soldiers. And he lost even more soldiers. In two months against the allied forces, he lost 400,000 soldiers. He said, “A year ago, the whole of Europe was marching alongside of us. Today the whole of Europe is marching against us.” At the beginning of 1814, the Allies invaded France. Even Austria, his wife’s father’s country, had joined the coalition against Napoleon. On 5 January 1814, Napoleon said goodbye to his wife and son. He would never see them again. On 31 March 1814, the allies marched into Paris. The war was over. Napoleon was psychologically crushed. He poisoned himself but didn’t die. A British warship carried Napoleon into exile to the island of Elba, a small island in the Mediterranean near Corsica. He was 45 years old. He had won and lost an empire.
100 DAYS AND THE END
Napoleon was not a prisoner in Elba. The Allies forbade him to leave the island but he didn’t live like a prisoner. He was the emperor of Elba. He ruled the island. At first he was excited about it. But then he was bored. In France, the Allies had restored monarchy. Louis XVIII was made the king. However, he wasn’t a popular king. French people didn’t like him. Napoleon thought that he could have a chance if he returned to France. On February 1815, he escaped from Elba and returned to France. The king sent a regiment of soldiers to stop him. (www.bebekce.gen.tr) When they found Napoleon, he stepped out in front of them and said, “Soldiers, if there is one among you who wants to kill his emperor, here I am.” His soldiers loved him. They would not kill him. They cried, “Long live the emperor [Napoleon]!” Two weeks later, Napoleon was back in Paris. The king had fled. Napoleon was the emperor again. Napoleon’s enemies united once again. They declared him an outlaw. Napoleon marched toward Waterloo, with an army of 73,000. He wanted to destroy the British army before the Prussians, Russians and the Austrians arrived. The battle took place on 18 June 1815. The Prussians arrived in time to help the British. They defeated Napoleon. Four days later Napoleon abdicated his throne. He asked the British to let him live “in a country house near London.” The British refused. They sent him back to exile. But this time they chose a remote island, the island of St. Helena (12,000 km from France) in the South Atlantic Ocean. When Napoleon saw the island he said, This is going to be my grave.” He was very unhappy. He said he wanted “to fall asleep and not wake up for a year or two.” On this island he was a prisoner, guarded by 2000 British soldiers, and two British warships that circled the island 24 hours a day.
Napoleon didn’t know what to do on the island. He read, wrote, gardened, dictated his life. He lived 5,5 years more. On 5 May 1821, at the age of 51, he died. His last words were, “France, army, chief of army, Josephine”.